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Clinical Trials: Nutrition/Metabolism/Exercise
IRB No. 17-015-1 (Dr. Ann Ferris, PI): Parental Practices Supporting Positive Eating Behaviors During Independent Eating Occasions Among Early Adolescent Children
There is limited evidence about how adolescents eat when they are making food choices without the direct influence of their parents, who are primary influencers of their choices and consumption behavior as children (Savage et al., 2007). US children and adults are consuming food more frequently throughout the day and more at each occasion (Popkin & Duffey, 2010); a rise that parallels the rise in obesity and increases in portion sizes (Piernas and Popkin, 2011). That consumption is occurring as primary eating or meal occasions but increasingly as secondary eating which may nor may not be mealtime eating. Additionally, while evidence shows that most families (58%) consume about 5 or more meals/week together, (National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), 2011), others report the percentage consuming shared family meals decreases among lower SES groups (Neumark-Sztainer et al., 2013). The 1994-96 CFSII data reveal a mean of 4.5 daily eating occasions/day (Ritchie, 2012). Adolescents (10-13 years old) who are at the age of becoming more independent are likely making food choice decisions on their own at some of those other daily eating occasions. However, frequency of eating and snacking are both increasing and what and how much food adolescents choose and consume when they are outside of their parental influence is not known. Having a greater understanding of this phenomenon fosters the ability to communicate and promote effective practices and strategies to parents for managing healthy eating among their youth. The research objectives for this study are to: 1) explore and identify key parental practices (role modeling, making healthy foods available, and setting rules/expectations and other practices) that may impact eating behaviors and food choices during independent eating occasions and weight among low-income, multi-ethnic early adolescents; 2) examine the association between key parental practices and positive eating behaviors during independent eating occasions among low-income, multi-ethnic early adolescents; 3) examine the association between key parental practices and early adolescents' weight; and 4) develop communications for parents and nutrition professionals. The accomplishment of the 4 research objectives will occur over a period of 5 years; however, the information presented in the current IRB application will focus only on objective 1, which will be the initial data collected this year. Subsequent IRB amendments for the remaining objectives will be submitted at a future date (subsequent objective materials are dependent on data gathered through objective 1).